South Yorkshire Mayor Dan Jarvis has announced the proposals.
Ideas to improve train services in Rotherham have been revealed.
The Sheffield City Region's plans include the creation of a new Midland Main Line station in Rotherham.
Mayor Dan Jarvis has launched the full list of proposals, which have been welcomed by the Department for Transport.
Jarvis said: "This is a landmark moment for our region. For the first time, Government, regional partners and our local authorities have come together to welcome a vision for the future of our rail services, creating a Plan that will revolutionise rail travel for our communities.
"But although individual pieces of infrastructure are undoubtedly important; the most important feature of this Plan is that it ties together separate projects such as HS2 and Northern Powerhouse Rail into one cohesive whole, enabling people to travel within our region, across the North and nationally in a simple and efficient way.
"When I became Mayor I made transport one of my key priorities. Following on from the launch of my Transport Strategy, the appointment of Dame Sarah Storey as the Sheffield City Region's first Active Travel Commissioner, the launch of our independent Bus Review and the submission of a £220m Transforming Cities Fund bid, this is another example of how I'm taking action to ensure our transport network is fit for the 21st century."